The phrase “Loss and Damage” comes from the world of international climate negotiations. 早在1991年, representatives of the small island nation Vanuatu—home to over 300,000 people in the South Pacific—cited Loss and Damage at the UN Framework Convention on 617888九五至尊娱乐变化 (UNFCCC). 在那里,他们 提出了 发达国家帮助支付的经济负担 损失和损坏 suffered by the most vulnerable small island and low-lying developing countries… as a result of sea level rise.”
30多年后，联合国617888九五至尊娱乐变化框架公约的成员国 仍然 每年通过缔约方会议(COP)举行会议. 包括瓦努阿图在内的越来越多的国家组成了联盟 仍然 asking for help with Loss and Damage—money to help them cope with the extreme impacts of 617888九五至尊娱乐变化 that are beyond their ability to adapt to.
By now, most people are familiar with the ways in which 617888九五至尊娱乐变化 disrupts our lives. 洪水. 热浪. 森林大火. 破坏性的风暴. 缓慢发生的灾难，比如海平面上升.
But the consequences of 617888九五至尊娱乐变化 don’t hit everyone equally. 2022年，洪水淹没了巴基斯坦大约三分之一的土地， 影响 more than 33 million people and costing over $30 billion in 经济 losses. 同年，索马里遭殃 广泛的饥荒 经过连续四个雨季没能带来水. 瓦努阿图已经重新安置 整整六个镇 由于不可逆转和加速的海平面上升.
这些和其他灾难性的影响是由 617888九五至尊娱乐 to human-caused global warming, driven primarily by burning fossil fuels. And richer nations like 美国 are responsible for a majority of the heat-trapping emissions to date.
In other words: Loss and Damage includes a lot because the climate crisis is bad. It’s exacerbating global inequalities and outpacing the ability of many communities and countries to react and adapt—especially where many people live in poverty. 损害是双重的 经济, such as the loss of homes, livelihoods, and infrastructure, and 非经济，例如生物多样性的丧失，生活方式的丧失，以及 文化遗产.
Money from a fund for Loss and Damage might go toward efforts to rebuild communities and economies, 生态修复, 甚至是搬迁, 由于海平面上升，整个地区变得不适合居住, 长期干旱, 或者其他617888九五至尊娱乐影响.
在《联合国617888九五至尊娱乐变化框架公约》框架下, the question of accountability for Loss and Damage revolves around the responsibilities of specific nations. 美国有责任 几乎四分之一 温室气体排放加剧了617888九五至尊娱乐变化. 美国领导人早就知道这些排放的影响 几十年, while repeatedly undermining efforts from the Global South to hold richer nations accountable.
In other words: our leaders are failing to live up to our international responsibilities to address 617888九五至尊娱乐变化 in a fair way.
除了富裕国家，化石燃料公司 也要承担责任 for the climate crisis and the 损害赔偿 their products 有 wrought. 毕竟, 全球变暖是由燃烧化石燃料引起的, and the companies who sell fossil fuels 有 known about the impacts of their products for a 很长时间了. 越来越多的 诉讼 在美国和世界各地都有 越来越多 of scientific evidence—argue that those companies should now pay up, both for the 损害赔偿 他们的产品所造成的后果，以及他们所扮演的角色 误导 公众意识到全球变暖的危险.
经过多年的谈判, 以及美国和其他国家的阻挠, the 27th Conference of the Parties (COP27) finally agreed to establish a Loss and Damage fund for climate-vulnerable countries.
没有达成一致的是细节问题. 这些细节正在通过一个 过渡委员会 and efforts to clarify who must pay into the fund and who is eligible to receive funding are 在进行中. The committee will be submitting its recommendations to countries ahead of COP28 in Dubai at the end of 2023, 目的是在那里设立损失和损害基金.
为了基金的成功, 美国, 以及世界上其他污染最严重的国家, 应该致力于延长, 稳定的, 稳健的融资. The fund should also scale up rapidly as impacts grow more extreme. And resources from the fund should become available as soon as possible, as people across the world call for justice in the face of a deeply inequitable global crisis already well 在进行中.
The Union of Concerned Scientists has participated in every COP since the UNFCCC was first established. 世界各地的受害者团结一致, we strongly support a robustly funded and well-functioning Loss and Damage fund, financed by 美国 and other wealthy polluting nations and delivering justice for those on the frontlines of the climate crisis.